Research & Your Health is a series of articles written in accessible, everyday language, focused on the latest scientific research of natural health products.
On November 4, 2015
Background: Gingivitis (a reversible condition) and periodontitis (a destructive non-reversible condition) are oral inflammatory conditions of an infectious nature. Periodontitis can even lead to loss of tooth connective tissue and consequent loss of teeth. Several studies show that gingivitis and microbial plaque stimulate an immune response, resulting in oxidative stress. This is defined as a disturbance in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance in favour of the former, causing oxidative damage. CoQ10 is an antioxidant that has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. While there is evidence of CoQ10 deficiencies in periodontitis patients, no substantial research to date has examined the effectiveness of the therapeutic benefit of CoQ10 on periodontal health.
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 supplementation as an adjunct to mechanical periodontal therapy. The latter consisted of scaling and root planing.
Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled and parallel group design clinical trial. Thirty healthy patients (14 women and 16 men) were randomly assigned to two study groups. Each had to have a plaque index and gingival index score of two or more, with at least three non-adjacent interproximal sites having a probing pocket depth of 5 mm or more. None of these subjects were smokers, pregnant or breastfeeding. Also, those who received antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs during the trial were excluded. The test group (15 subjects) were given oral CoQ10 (120 mg by Yash Pharma International) supplements after scaling and root planing. The control group (15 subjects) was given a placebo after scaling and root planing. The plaque index, gingival index and probing depth were recorded at baseline after one and three months.
Results: Both groups showed improvements in all three parameters at one and three months after baseline. Although there were no differences between the plaque indexes or probing depths between the two groups, the test group showed significantly more decrease in gingival inflammation compared to the control group.
Conclusion: This study found that, compared to scaling and root planing only, the additional supplementation with CoQ10 resulted in a significant reduction in gingival inflammation. The same positive effect was not seen in the plaque index and probing depth, and there were no differences between the two groups.
Findings in Perspective: In this study, CoQ10 supplementation showed a significant reduction of gingival inflammation after one and three months compared to when only scaling and root planing were done. The study failed to show any difference in the improvement of plaque index and probing depth between the two groups. However, because gingivitis precedes the onset of periodontitis, this study shows that supplemental CoQ10 could prevent the development of the more dangerous condition of periodontitis in the short term after scaling and root planing.
Effectiveness of CoQ10 Oral Supplements as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in Improving Periodontal Health Sathish Manthena,, Mulpuri. Venkata. Ramoji Rao, et al. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2015 Aug, Vol-9(8): ZC26-ZC28